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Noun to noun: Suffixation

 
 
Noun-to-noun suffixation is the combination of a noun stem and a suffix to form a new noun stem. There are different types of noun-to-noun suffixation:

No umlaut

This is the most frequent type of noun-to-noun suffixation. Examples:

Bäcker + ei = Bäckerei
Musik + er = Musiker
Kind + erei = Kinderei
Mensch + heit = Menschheit
Bote + in = Botin
Silber + ling = Silberling
Mutter + schaft = Mutterschaft
Ritter + tum = Rittertum
Holz + ung = Holzung

German suffixes that can form new nouns without umlaut:

 chen  ei  el  en
 er  erchen  erei  erich
 heit  ien  in  land
 lein  ler  ling  ner
 schaft  tum  ung  


With umlaut

Some suffixes cause the stressed vowel a, o or u of the noun stem to be umlauted:

Haus + chen = Häuschen
Tochter + chen = Töchterchen
Schule + er = Schüler
Arzt + in = Ärztin
Buch + lein = Büchlein
Kunst + ler = Künstler
Daumen + ling = Däumling
Zoll + ner = Zöllner

All suffixes causing umlaut are German:

 chen  el  er  erchen
 erich  in  lein  ler
 ling  ner    


With plural form

Some suffixes can be combined with the plural form of a noun:

Christen + heit = Christenheit
Fürsten + tum = Fürstentum
Studenten + schaft = Studentenschaft

All suffixes combining with plural forms:

 heit  schaft  tum


With linking element (e)s

In some cases, the linking element es or s is inserted between the noun stem and the suffix:

Mönch +
s
+ tum = Mönchstum
Mann
es
tum = Mannestum
Volk
s
tum = Volkstum

The only suffix is:

 tum 


Combined derivation

Some suffixes form new nouns from combinations of an adjective and a noun or a noun and a noun:

fünf + Fläche + ner = Fünfflächner
viel + Gott + erei = Vielgötterei
Paar + Huf + er = Paarhufer
Kopf + Fuß + ler = Kopffüßler

Suffixes used in combined derivation:

 er  erei  ler  ner


Foreign suffixes

Basically, suffixation with foreign suffixes does not differ from suffixation without umlaut with German suffixes. However, the nouns that are combined with foreign suffixes are ususally of foreign origin.

Examples:

Planet + arium = Planetarium
Maschine + erie = Maschinerie
Steward + ess = Stewardess
Garderobe + iere = Gardorobiere
Alkohol + iker = Alkoholiker
Snob + ismus = Snobismus
Seminar + ist = Seminarist
Direktor + orium = Direktorium

All foreign suffixes:

 ade  ane  aner  ar
 är  arium  ase  at
 azee  e  erie  ese
 esse  ette  eur  euse
 ia  iat  id   ie
 ier [je:]  ier [i:r]  iere  iker
 in  ine  iner  ismus
 ist  it1  it2  iter
 ium  ol  om  ose
 ur





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