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Verb to verb: Prefixation

 
 
Verb-to-verb prefixation is the combination of a prefix and a verb into a new verb.

The derived verbs belong to the same inflection class as the verb from which they are derived. For example:

prefix + irregular verb = irregular verb
be + singen  sang gesungen = besingen  besang besungen
 
prefix + regular verb = regular verb
ab + spielen  spielte  gespielt = abspielen abspielte  abgespielt

We distinguish the following classes of prefixes:

Inseparable prefixes (German)

The prefixes belonging to this class are German prefixes that exclusively form inseparable verbs. Inseparable prefixes are unstressed.

be ent er ge
hinter miss ver zer


Separable prefixes

The prefixes belonging to this class exclusively form separable verbs. They are all German. Separable prefixes are stressed.

ab an auf aus
bei dar ein fehl
für inne los nach
rück vor wieder zu
zurecht zwischen


Separable and inseparable prefixes

The prefixes belonging to this class form inseparable verbs as well as separable verbs. They are all German.

durch über um unter
wider

These prefixes can form both an inseparable and a separable verb from the same base verb. When they are used as inseparable prefixes, the verb stem is stressed. When they are used as separable prefixes, the prefix is stressed:

inseparable:   umfáhren   Der Bus umfährt die Baustelle.
separable: úmfahren Der Bus fährt einen Hydranten um.


Foreign prefixes

Foreign suffixes only form inseparable verbs. They are only added to verbs ending in ieren.

ab ad ante co
de/des dis en ex
in inter intro kon
konter kontra per post
prä pro re retro
sub trans zirkum







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